accusations that they have not been providing feedback, which
might have enabled that supervisee to succeed,” Goodyear says.
Likewise, good supervisors use assessment methods and
strategies that allow them to give appropriate feedback —
regular videotaping and discussion of sessions, for example.
Third-year Pepperdine University graduate student Mark Miller
says it took some time getting comfortable with watching his
sessions on videotape, but now he wouldn’t choose a practice
site that didn’t use this strategy.
“For me, giving a supervisor access to my performance and
choosing sites that have those resources and mechanisms in
place is extremely important,” he says. “I’m not sure how deep
or effective supervision can be without that.”
Finally, good supervisors should be alert to cultural,
gender, ethnic and other differences between themselves, their
supervisees and their supervisees’ clients, Falender says.
“Supervisors should be constantly thinking about their
own world views, about others’ world views, about their own
diversity status on multiple dimensions and how this intersects
with the supervisee’s world view, and about how all of this
relates to the client’s presenting problem,” she says.
Cultural competence is one area where students may have
something to teach their supervisors, rather than the other
way around, Falender adds. To this end, the guidelines also
emphasize the importance of supervisory relationships that are
“Students may have training that might be superior to or dif-
While other mental health professions and psychologists
ferent from their supervisors,” she says. “By embedding the whole
idea of collaboration into supervision, we hope supervisors will
understand more fully that they can learn from their supervisees
as well as imbue them with knowledge, skills and values.”
The guidelines also emphasize that students should be
trained to become supervisors while they’re still in graduate
school, Falender adds. While APA’s current accreditation
guidelines call for supervision training, the new guidelines will
underscore the importance of that activity, she says.
in some other countries have supervisory guidelines, they are
something new for American psychology, Grus adds.
“This is a resource that APA has not embarked on before,”
she says. “It’s filling a void that’s been there for a long time.” n
Access the guidelines at www.apa.org/ed/resources/index.aspx.
Tori DeAngelis is a journalist in Syracuse, New York.
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