the benefits of cessation. She also was the behavioral scientist on
the independent U.S. Preventive Services Task Force from 2003
to 2008, and on Surgeon General C. Everett Koop’s Advisory
Committee on Smoking and Health.
• The Department of Health and Human Services used
her research on topics including tobacco intervention
and cardiovascular disease, physician-delivered smoking
interventions, and medical student training on tobacco
treatment counseling to develop its tobacco treatment
guidelines in 1996, 2000 and 2008.
C. Tracy Orleans, PhD, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
• Developed, evaluated and
disseminated evidence-based quit-
smoking programs in many venues
and with many populations including
pregnant women, African Americans,
older adults and athletes addicted to
• Helped pioneer links between
clinical interventions and population-level interventions, for maximum
impact. Developed and led many national research programs
related to this topic, including at the Robert Wood Johnson
• Documented the limited Medicaid reimbursement for
evidence-based cessation counseling, which helped propel
dramatic increases in this coverage.
• Modeled the synergistic effects of clinical cessation and
broader public health tobacco control policies, which helped
make the case for combined clinical and policy-oriented
national tobacco control efforts.
Marina Piciotto, PhD, Yale University
• Conducted genetic knockout mice
studies of the nicotine receptor, showing
how nicotine activates the reward
centers of the brain and hence leads to
its compulsive use. Such research has
contributed to the field’s understanding
of the basic mechanisms of smoking
addiction and treatment.
Terry F. Pechacek, PhD, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention
• A contributor, peer reviewer, senior scientific reviewer,
editor and lead federal scientist on many surgeon general’s
reports on smoking since 1979, including this year’s report.
Received the Surgeon General’s Medallion in 2006 and other
awards from the surgeon general’s office for his work on 20 of
• In 1989, helped to establish the
American Stop Smoking Intervention
Study (ASSIST) at the National Cancer
Institute, which funded 17 states and the
American Cancer Society to implement
this comprehensive tobacco control
model. The study reduced the number
of adult smokers by 1. 2 million, and its
findings supported the creation of CDC’s
National Tobacco Control Program.
• Wrote the CDC’s “Best Practices
for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs” in 1999,
updated it in 2007, and testified on its recommendations before
legislatures and governor’s advisory boards in more than 20
states. His technical advice and the National Tobacco Control
Program have guided the implementation of more than $10
billion in state investments to implement comprehensive
tobacco control programs.
• Lead federal scientist in developing most of the common
“key facts” used to describe the tobacco epidemic in this
country, including smoking-related morbidity and mortality
economic costs’ methodology, CDC’s updated smoking-attributable annual death estimates, the estimated economic
costs of smoking, and the projected future death estimates
Saul Shiffman, PhD, University of
• Conducted one of first systematic
studies of nicotine withdrawal, which
helped change the view of smoking from
that of a bad habit to a physical addiction.
• Contributed 35 years of research
to understanding what makes smokers
relapse and how they can prevent it.
• Studied pharmacological treatment
of smoking, including nicotine replacement therapies. This
work influenced treatment policy, helping to shape the current
consensus that medication is an essential part of smoking-cessation treatment.
• His work informed the decision to allow nicotine
medication to be sold over the counter rather than through
a doctor’s prescription. The move increased medication use
by more than 250 percent, and allowed psychologists to use
medication as part of their treatment approach.
— TORI DEANGELIS