rigor in science. However, his case
reminds of us a series of studies by
Mazar, Amir, and Ariely (2008) that
supported their theory that “people
behave dishonestly enough to profit but
honestly enough to delude themselves
of their own integrity” (p. 633). That
is, most people will cheat, but not so
much that they feel the need to view
themselves as cheaters. William would
never have fabricated an entire dataset;
he just added some missing data and
dropped outliers that did not fit with
his hypotheses. He was surprised when
he was caught and even more surprised
when he became labeled a federal
People regularly make exceptions to
social rules and this is often tolerated.
As Sally noted, not everything that
is taught in responsible conduct of
research courses is strictly followed
in the real world. However, when
confronted with research misconduct,
our society does not tolerate
exceptions. This can be confusing to
researchers who observe questionable
research practices with some regularity
(Koocher and Keith-Spiegel, 2010). It
can also cause problems for researchers
when they are accustomed to cheating
just a little, just enough to benefit but
not so much as to view themselves as
We will do well to learn from the pain
of Sally, William and others who have
found themselves in a similar position:
Rules about research misconduct do not
bend before breaking. n
James M. DuBois, DSc, PhD, is professor
of medicine and director of the Center for
Clinical Research Ethics in the Division of
General Medical Sciences at the Washington University School of Medicine.
1. DuBois, James M., Emily E. Anderson, and John T. Chibnall.
2013. “Assessing the need for a research ethics remediation
program.” Clinical and Translational Science:n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/
2. Koocher, G. P., and P. Keith-Spiegel. 2010. “Peers nip
misconduct in the bud.” Nature no. 466 (7305):438-40. doi:
3. Mazar, Nina, On Amir, and Dan Ariely. 2008. “The dishonesty
of honest people: A theory of self-concept maintenance.” Journal
of Marketing Research no. XLV:633-644.
of the American Psychological Association®
The Sixth Edition of the
of the American Psychological Association
2010. 272 pages.
$28.95 • Item 4200066
$39.95 • Item 4200067
Lay-Flat Spiral Binding
$36.95 • Item 4200068
THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE
The Publication Manual is the style manual of choice for writers,
editors, students, and educators. Although it is specifically designed
to help writers in the behavioral sciences and social sciences,
anyone who writes non-fiction prose can benefit from its guidance.
The newly revised Sixth Edition has been thoroughly rethought,
reorganized, and rewritten.
EASIER TO USE
The Sixth Edition is the most user-friendly Publication Manual the
APA has ever produced. You will be able to find answers to your
questions faster than ever before.
PACKED WI TH INFORMATION
When you need advice on how to present information, including
text, data, and graphics, for publication in any type of format—
such as college and university papers, professional journals,
presentations for colleagues, and online publication—you will find
the advice you’re looking for in the Publication Manual.
For more information about this title
and other APA Style® books, visit www.apastyle.org.