Spirituality, religion and prayer can all be integrated in
psychologists’ ongoing practice, and technically no certification
is required to do so, but the psychologist will want to be
competent about the religion or faith-based practices being
used. Psychologists will also want to be aware that practicing a
particular faith does not make one competent to utilize it into
their psychotherapy practice. While spirituality, religion and
prayer can be a part of ongoing practice, psychologists should
not exceed their clinical roles and take on the role of clergy.
Clinicians who are interested in integrating spirituality, religion
or prayer into an ongoing practice will want to first obtain
the education and training necessary to ensure their clinical
Movement therapy is the “psychotherapeutic use of movement
to promote [the] emotional, cognitive, physical, and social
integration of individuals” (American Dance Therapy
Association [ADTA], 2009b). Often referred to as dance/
movement therapy (DMT), it focuses on “movement behavior
as it emerges in the therapeutic relationship” (ADTA, 2009b).
A goal of DMT is to use the body’s movement as a way of
expressing the unconscious (Levy, 1988). Dance/movement
therapists believe that the mind and the body do not function
separately and that by focusing on the body, one should be
able to affect his or her mind and therefore relieve a variety of
symptoms (Levy, 1995).
More research is needed to support and guide the use of
DMT. However, the ADTA has reported some support for
using the therapy to help treat a variety of symptoms such as
those associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,
dementia, depression and a variety of physical disabilities, as
well as to promote overall well-being (ADTA, 2009a). DMT
is one of the lesser-known CAM modalities, with only 1. 5
percent of adults reporting that they had used the therapy in the
previous year (Barnes et al., 2008). Certification is required to
practice DMT and it requires a graduate degree from an ADTA-approved program.
This technique to improve health and functioning “through
stimulation of specific points on the body” has been used for
thousands of years (NCCAM, 2011a). Barnes et al. (2008)
reported that 1. 4 percent of adults said they have used
acupuncture in the preceding year.
Typically, acupuncture involves penetrating the skin with
needles, which are then manipulated by the acupuncturist’s
hands or by a form of electrical stimulation (NCCAM, 2011a).
The needles are inserted into specific locations on the body
as a way of balancing “the flow of life energy,” also known as
qi (pronounced “chee”). Acupuncture has been shown to be
effective at relieving symptoms of depression and anxiety, as
well as migraines and other forms of chronic pain (Furlan et al.,
2010; Roschke et al., 2000).
Certification is required to practice acupuncture, and
only physicians who have completed additional training,
acupuncturists and doctors of oriental medicine can practice
acupuncture. Some states require licensure to practice
acupuncture, while others require certification through the
National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and
Oriental Medicine in addition to licensure. Psychologists, even
if certified, should not serve as a client’s acupuncturist as well as
his or her psychotherapist since acupuncture often involves the
client removing articles of clothing, a clear boundary violation.
Also, in some states, it is illegal for psychologists to provide any
forms of treatment that involve piercing of the skin.
The term Reiki means “spiritually guided life force energy”
(International Center for Reiki Training, 2011). Reiki involves
the passing of energy from a trained Reiki practitioner’s body to
the client’s body as a method of healing. The client can remain
fully clothed, as it is believed that the Reiki energy can easily
pass through clothing or other objects (Plodek, 2009). The Reiki
practitioner utilizes a series of established hand positions as a
means for allowing the energy to move freely between the bodies.
Only 0.5 percent of the population report using Reiki
(Barnes et al., 2008), and there is little research on its efficacy.
Despite this, Reiki has been shown to help with stress and
pain management, as well as to promote relaxation (Bowden,
Goddard, & Gruzelier, 2010; Olson, Hanson, & Michaud, 2003).
Certification is required to practice Reiki. Referrals should
be made for Reiki services, as opposed to integrating them
into ongoing practice, as the hand positions will likely cross
psychologists’ ethical boundaries: Even though there is no
direct contact, the clinician’s hands are placed very close to the
This technique uses electrical sensors to provide information
to a client that can help him or her improve health and/or
performance (Association for Applied Psychophysiology and