some verbal evidence — that’s better
measures, Nancy and I would not have
children and adolescents with social
than gathering one measure.
made the discoveries we did. Only the
anxiety. I couldn’t ask for a better
But often psychologists and
neuroscientists invest a great deal
infants who combined limb activity,
arches and crying became timid, shy
example of the utility of looking for
patterns of evidence. n
of time and money gathering the
brain data and then they relate this
evidence to the replies on a 15-minute
questionnaire, or the answer to one
question, “How are you feeling?”
This strategy is unlikely to make a
major discovery. So, I think we have
to get a little more complicated in the
verbal reports that we get.
We also have to look at patterns of
data. Too often, psychological studies
look at one dependent variable. For
Social Responsiveness Scale
example, the answers to a personality
questionnaire are only one measure.
So, too, is cortisol concentration in the
saliva or an event-related potential.
Do the symptoms indicate autism, Asperger’s,
Nature does not work that way. Natural
PDD-NOS, or something else? Find out with the SRS- 2.
phenomena consist of patterns of
features. A single measure can be the
product of more than one condition.
Therefore, one cannot know the
meaning of any single measure — it
is necessary to combine it with other
measures. That is what biologists do.
If you look at my book “The Long
Shadow of Temperament,” which I
wrote with Nancy Snidman, it was the
■ Unparalleled evidence of validity—across the lifespan and across cultures, nationalities, and clinical groups ■ Expanded age range— 2½ years through adulthood ■ Current, nationally representative norms ■ Updated interpretive guidelines ■ Unlimited-use scoring software NEW in the SRS- 2
■ Two DSM- 5 Compatible Subscales that allow easy
comparison of symptoms to proposed ASD
patterns that helped us understand our
data. We examined the responses of
many infants to a series of unfamiliar
stimuli. When we began the work,
we didn’t know that there were high-reactive infants. But when we examined
videotapes of the responses of many
infants to a series of unfamiliar stimuli,
we found that some infants combined
a pattern of three responses: vigorous
limb movement, arches of the back and
crying. This pattern defines a high-reactive infant.
If we had only used one of these
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OCTOBER 2012 • MONITOR ON PSYCHOLOGY APA Monitor_oct 2012 2-Col ad.indd 1